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A Decade After No Child Left Behind, Time for a Right Turn in Education
Posted By Jennifer Marshall On January 9, 2012 @ 10:45 am In Education | 1 Comment
No Child Left Behind (NCLB) turned 10 yesterday, and the anniversary is a good time to assess the toll of federal education intervention and to identify steps Congress can take now toward restoring constitutional governance in education .
Eight legislative generations before NCLB, Washington first ventured into local school policy with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). The 31-page, $1 billion Great Society program funded low-income districts in an effort to close the achievement gap between needy students and their peers. Nearly a half-century later, the situation is little improved.
What has changed is the federal role. ESEA is the centerpiece of that role, the largest—though not the only—federal law applying to K-12 education. After eight reauthorizations, the law is now known as No Child Left Behind. It runs 600 pages and carries an annual price tag to taxpayers of about $25 billion.
Federal intervention started with a narrow purpose: to provide supplemental resources to low-income students. The role gradually expanded, and in the mid-1990s laws began to focus on leveraging system-wide reform from Washington, leaving no area of education off-limits. Beyond such laws, Washington’s regulations and guidance dictate implementation of the 150-plus federal education programs. Hundreds of pages in the Code of Federal Regulations specify the operation of the U.S. Department of Education’s K–12 education programs. The department has also issued guidance  on K–12 education on more than 100 occasions during the decade since NCLB was enacted.
The fundamental mismatch between the federal government’s constitutional limits and its interventionist policy on education has led to continual expansion and overhaul of programs, all trying to make federal intervention succeed where it has neither authority nor capacity. Washington’s intervention has led to increased state and local education bureaucracy and shifted focus toward compliance  with federal policy. This undermines schools’ direct accountability to parents and taxpayers and erodes good governance.
State education bureaucracy grew rapidly following the 1965 passage of ESEA: Between 1966 and 1970, Congress appropriated $128 million for state education agencies, and their staffs doubled. That growth resulted from a focus on tapping the new federal funding source and implementing federal programs.
States often exert enormous energy to obtain federal funding (which represents about 10 percent of the total spent on local education). For example, 41 states spent countless hours crafting applications for the Obama Administration’s Race to the Top grant competition , with some states submitting applications close to 1,000 pages in order to qualify for a slice of the $4.35 billion funding. Only 11 states and D.C. received awards. For the rest, the significant amount of time and money expended on grant applications will not be recouped by taxpayers.
Federal intervention has created a significant compliance burden for local schools. This wastes time and money that could be more effectively deployed to achieve educational excellence. According to the Office of Management and Budget in 2006, NCLB had increased the annual paperwork burden on state and local communities by 7 million hours, or $140 million. One district reported  that “the cost of setting aside a single day to train the roughly 14,000 teachers in the division on the law’s complex requirements is equivalent to the cost of hiring 72 additional teachers.”
Rather than answering up the bureaucratic chain of command to Washington, accountability should be directed to parents and other taxpayers. Reforms  should restore this proper alignment, rolling back federal intervention and advancing parental choice, to redirect accountability from Washington to parents. Washington should:
Expansive federal funding and burdensome administrative mandates have eroded good governance, increased state bureaucracy, and achieved poor results. A decade after the enactment of NCLB, it’s high time that Congress take steps to restore constitutional governance in education by sending dollars and decision making to those closer to students.
Article printed from The Foundry: Conservative Policy News Blog from The Heritage Foundation: http://blog.heritage.org
URL to article: http://blog.heritage.org/2012/01/09/a-decade-after-no-child-left-behind-time-for-a-right-turn-in-education/
URLs in this post:
 restoring constitutional governance in education: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/04/freeing-schools-from-washingtons-education-overreach
 issued guidance: http://www2.ed.gov/policy/gen/guid/significant-guidance.doc
 compliance: http://www.heritage.org/research/testimony/2011/03/effects-of-the-federal-role-and-intervention-in-education
 competition: http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/phase1-applications/index.html
 reported: http://www.doe.virginia.gov/federal_programs/esea/reports/appendices_cost_fulfilling_requirements.pdf
 Reforms: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2011/06/reducing-the-federal-footprint-on-education-and-empowering-state-and-local-leaders
 Florida: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/09/closing-the-racial-achievement-gap-learning-from-floridas-reforms
 no more than a handful of experts in the country clearly understand the process from beginning to end: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2007/06/a-closer-look-at-title-i-making-education-for-the-disadvantaged-more-student-centered
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